For a long time, Icelanders have held fast to old ways, to their language, nationality, and liberty. Over the centuries, their struggle for such values has attested their sense of tradition. The preservation of Icelandic language and literature has long been one of the Icelanders’ greatest concerns, and the struggle for sovereignty and independence from Danish rule persisted until victory was gained. Icelanders won their independence and national sovereignty again in 1918, after nearly seven centuries of foreign rule, first under the Norway, then Denmark. In 1944, the Republic of Iceland was constituted. To many it now seems as though Icelandic culture is under a new threat, so-called “Americanization.” Others think such concerns absurd – Icelanders are simply keeping up.